The cover photo is of a croatal bell ca. 1790's found in Chippenhook. These bells were attached to bridles and harnesses alerting pedestrians of oncoming horse drawn carriages and sleighs.
The photo below is of a Victorian Era (1837 - 1901) bird whistle found in the same vicinity (corner of Walker Mtn. Road and Gravel Pit Rd - the site of the old Pencil
Mill). The body of the bird holds water that produces a chirping sound. A second identical bird whistle (not shown) was recovered at the
old J. Weeks home on Bump Road as seen on the 1869 map.